Charles J. Stivale
Department of Romance Languages and Literatures
Wayne State University
Detroit MI 48202

[Please do not cite without permission]

Narratives and Metanarratives: Carlos Castaneda's "Textual-Becomings"

[Updated April 12, 2000]

In his final book of interviews and occasional pieces, -Pourparlers- (translated as -Negotiations-), Gilles Deleuze says: "[Mediators (-intercesseurs-)] can be people -- for a philosopher, artists or scientists; for a scientist, philosophers or artists--but things too, even plants or animals, as in Castaneda. Whether they're real or imaginary, animate or inanimate, you have to form your mediators" (N 125, P 171). For Deleuze, however a "mediator" is constructed or adopted, it provides an impetus for creative activity and production, and calling this a relation in "a series," Deleuze adds, "If you're not in some series, even a completely imaginary one, you're lost" (N 125, P 171). Although his emphasis here is on the importance of the "series" he formed with Félix Guattari, it is his reference to Carlos Castaneda that has seized my attention in this regard. For in the ten volumes published since 1968 of the "conversations" and "teachings" of don Juan Matus, Castaneda constructs a complex nexus of "textual becomings" that have yet to be fully explored, but that clearly serve as "mediators" for a wide range of readers.

I have provided a handout with the title and dates of these volumes and other bibliographical references pertinent for this talk. I must first provide a caveat about this presentation. As many of you know, the steps between preparing a conference abstract and producing the conference paper can have some unforeseen developments. I had intended to provide an overview of the narrative arc in Castaneda's successive texts as well as a typology of the metanarratives that these texts inspired. For reasons of economy, I have relegated this overview to the annotated references on the bibliography and the typology to the subsequent list of titles on the handout. This means that the "metanarrative" sections (in which I had hoped to consider the satellite texts inspired by the main 10-volume series of narratives) will remain fairly allusive since certain narrative strategies that structure the main series now retain my attention.

I wish to consider two textual strategies that adhere to the successive narrative layers of what I imagine as the "narrative onion" of this series of volumes, specifically the conjoined problems of narrative frame and reliability and their relation to the implicit contract between reader and writer. To some extent, the reliability question is the correlate in narrative terms of the questions of ethnographical validity posed by Castaneda's critics. I consider the question of narrative frames in these volumes under the rubric of "Fear of Fiction" because one recurring facet in these texts is Castaneda's strategies -- whether in introductory remarks or in the accounts themselves -- for establishing the -factual- basis that he clearly needs to communicate to the reader at each step of his project.

At the most obvious, but also most disputed level, the early volumes of the don Juan series purportedly constitute anthropological field notes, the initial volume endorsed publicly by important anthropologists, and a version of the third volume (-Journey to Ixtlan-) serving as Castaneda's doctoral dissertation in anthropology at UCLA. As one progresses in the first five volumes ostensibly derived from the accumulated field notes, one encounters the transformations that the author/narrator undergoes, despite himself, in the process of recording notes and evaluatingexperiences. On the one hand, this process consists of Castaneda's various attempts at "making sense" of this experience through the narratives that he relates and thereby constructs. On the other hand, and consequently, this "sense-making" and "narrative-constructing" undermine his anthropological, i.e. rational, scientific training, and result in the ruptures with which volumes 1 and 2 end and that volumes 3, 4, and 5 attempt to resolve and overcome.

Castaneda's ethnographic enterprise has undergone significant critique from a persistent minority in the anthropological community. Richard De Mille and Jay Courtney Fikes have both placed in question the existence of the chief informant, don Juan Matus, and accused Castaneda of fabricating data to create fiction and thereby misrepresent Native American peoples and their cultural practices. However, over the past decade and half, in volumes 6 to 9, Castaneda has laid the groundwork for the systematic and detailed review of aspects of the "teachings" purported to have descended from a long lineage of sorcerers and transmitted directly to Castaneda and his fellow apprentices. Supporting testimony from two of them (Taisha Abelar and Florinda Donner), from Castaneda's former wife (Margaret Runyon Castaneda), and from self-proclaimed disciples of don Juan (Ken Eagle Feather and Victor Sanchez) offers documentation that would seem to challenge strongly the claims of Castaneda's critics.

The first volume is crucial and highly successful for establishing the factual basis in launching the entire series. Following the opening endorsement by UCLA professor Walter Goldschmidt, Castaneda commences by describing his first meeting with a "white-haired old Indian" during a trip to "the Southwest to collect information on the medicinal plants used by the Indians of the area" (1968: 13). Despite his initial failure to engage don Juan in his project, Castaneda persisted in visiting him, and a year later, don Juan agreed to direct him as an apprentice. Prior to the start of the apprenticeship in June, 1961, Castaneda had taken notes "in a covert manner" and then later "reconstructed the entire conversation" from memory. Once the apprenticeship began, don Juan allowed him "under strong protest," says Castaneda, to record openly in notes "anything that was said" (1968: 18). Castaneda states that this method --note-taking while serving as apprentice -- had actually "prevented the training from being successful, because it retarded the advent of the full commitment I needed to become a sorcerer" (1968: 19). However, Castaneda also found this preventative detachment to be beneficial to his research, and after he "voluntarily discontinued the apprenticeship" in September, 1965, he assembled the data in order to define and analyze the belief system that don Juan had imparted, organized according to the "states of nonordinary reality" that Castaneda experienced (part 1, "The Teachings) and to a "structural analysis" (in part 2) based on data reported in the first section.

I emphasize this initial frame because of Castaneda's insistence on two related aspects: the reliability of his methods and observations, and the detailed process of recording these field observations through note-taking. However, he also states: "My field notes disclose the subjective version of what I perceived while undergoing the experience. That version is presented here just as I narrated it to don Juan, who demanded a complete and faithful recollection of every detail and a full recounting of each experience" (1968: 25). Castaneda admits to having added "incidental details" in order to "recapture the total setting of each state of nonordinary reality" as well as "to describe the emotional impact I had experienced as completely as possible" (1968: 25). What is curious here, besides Castaneda's hedging on the strict factuality of his data,, is the direct role that don Juan played from the start of the research in demanding the "faithful recollection" and "full recounting" of each experience. I return to this curious detail later.

The initial narrative is dominated by Castaneda's account of his experiences induced by various psychotropic plants under don Juan's direction (peyote, jimson weed, and mushrooms). However, it is Castaneda's final, terrifying "encounter" in September 1965 occurring -without- psychotropics that led him to break off the apprenticeship. The reader observes in each subsequent volume of the first two cycles that the narrative framing emphasis on methodological reliability comes increasingly into conflict with Castaneda's growing awareness through his experiences of the tenuous validity of rational, scientific modes of explanation and verification. It is only in volume 6, -The Eagle's Gift-, that Castaneda finally begins to master the lived experience of heightened awareness in what is called variously the "left side," the "second ring of power," and the "second attention." At that point, the narrative takes a decidedly different turn in terms of the experiences recounted and of the narrative strategies deployed.

Before considering this distinctive turn, however, let me summarize briefly the transformations that the framing devices undergo in the first two cycles. The books that I am calling the "first cycle" (volumes 1 through 4) are based presumably on a series of misapprehensions and attempted corrections by Castaneda of his limited, yet evolving comprehension of the experiences he undergoes under the direction of don Juan and his sorcerer-comrade, don Genaro, during the decade-long apprenticeship.

-- In volume 2, Castaneda describes his initial engagement with don Juan in 1960-61 "not so much as a student of anthropology interested in medicinal plants but as a person with an inexplicable curiosity" (1971: 3), due to the piercing look don Juan gave him at their initial encounter. However, this status seems to contradict not only his self-description at the start of volume 1 (1968: 14), but also the tenacious note-taking procedures that he observed for a decade. As for the narrative frame, he insists that by condensing and editing his field notes so that the notes would flow, he "wanted by means of a reportage to communicate to the reader the drama and directness of the field situation" (1971: 8). Given that the system of belief that he was recording was incomprehensible to him, he maintains that "the pretense to anything other than reporting about it would be misleading and impertinent" (1971: 15).

-- In volume 3, with his realization of the completely erroneous assumption regarding psychotropic plants on which volumes 1 and 2 were based, Castaneda reinstates previously discarded field notes recorded between 1960 and 1962 (chapters 1-17) and adds three final chapters from 1971 in which don Juan and don Genaro lead Castaneda to "stop the world." While the narrative frame of reliability through reportage remains the same, Castaneda begins chapter 1 by contradicting yet again the account of his initial motivation for seeking don Juan in 1960: besides the intense curiosity about don Juan's piercing "gaze," Castaneda reveals his anthropological motivation fully in having prepared intensely for six months with readings on peyote cults before returning to find don Juan. Castaneda also records the scene in which don Juan asks Castaneda if he has his hand in his pocket to play with his "whanger." In fact, Castaneda was "taking notes on a minute pad inside the enormous pockets of my windbreaker. When I told him what I was doing he laughed heartily. I said that I did not want to disturb him by writing in front of him. 'If you want to write, write,' he said. 'You don't disturb me'" (1972: 5).

-- In volume 4, Castaneda provides no introduction, but in the opening pages, the dialogue suggests that Castaneda's complete review of his notes and revision of his understanding of don Juan's teaching took place in the six month interval of May-Autumn 1971. Castaneda henceforth abandons the careful dating of entries. The title refers to Castaneda's dilemma at this stage of his apprenticeship, too late to retreat but too soon to act: "For you," says Don Juan, "there is only witnessing acts of power and listening to tales, tales of power" (1974: 56). With the help of don Genero, don Juan pushes Castaneda further toward understanding the rational incompatibility between the "tonal" (island of daily existence) and the "nagual" (all that is "beyond the island," "where power hovers", 1974: 126-127). Castaneda's note-taking here constitutes the stable ground to which both don Juan and don Genaro return Castaneda in order collect himself, as they set up the final encounter with power at the end of Castaneda's formal apprenticeship with don Juan.

-- The preface to volume 5 provides important markers for the start of this "second cycle": the "seventeen elastic bounces between the tonal and the nagual" at the end of volume 4 push Castaneda not toward fear and confusion (as was the case earlier), but rather to return to seek greater understanding from his companions at that encounter, the apprentices Pablito and Nestor. The bridge between the first and second cycle is thus set up by this "encounter with power" at the end of volume 4 that constitutes the end of his formal apprenticeship, with don Juan and don Genaro henceforth absent from the volumes after their passage to the "other side" except through the characters' recollections. The two volumes (5 and 6) of the "second cycle" relate a narrative of successive breakthroughs, literally and figuratively, into the alternate, parallel state of "attention" to which Castaneda heretofore had only fleeting, irregular, and bewildered glimpses.

While there is little overt framing material in volume 5, the writing pad takes on even greater significance as the particular focal device for Castaneda's and the sorcerers' attention. The writing pad and references to Castaneda's note-taking serve both as the last remnant of a guarantee of narrative reliability and as an anchor for Castaneda to the everyday, rational, orderly awareness onto which he tenaciously holds. Nonetheless, the band of fellow warriors (four men and four women) expect Castaneda to direct them toward their new path of growth, replacing don Juan as their "nagual," or leader. After considerable strife, they and Castaneda realize that he is unfit for this role since his development as sorcerer remains incomplete.

In volume 6, Castaneda returns to Mexico after a strategic respite at him in Los Angeles,, and reunited with the group, he attempts to integrate his learning with the help of one member, a sorceress called La Gorda to whom he has a particular spiritual affinity. The Prologue of volume 6, -The Eagle's Gift-, provides a succinct review of the preceding volumes, with Castaneda declaring:

Under the influence of these two powerful men [don Juan and don Genaro] my work has been transformed into an autobiography, . . . a peculiar autobiography because . . . I am reporting [...] on the events that unfold in my life as a direct result of having adopted an alien set of interrelated ideas and procedures. In other words, the belief system I wanted to study swallowed me, and in order for me to proceed with my scrutiny I have to make an extraordinary daily payment, my life as a man in the world. (1981: 8)

In narrative terms, Castaneda realized the problem "of having to explain what it is that I am doing," insisting that "this is not a work of fiction" (1981: 8). "All I can do under the circumstances," he says, "is present what happened to me -as it happened-" (his emphasis with italics, 1981: 9). And he concludes, "I cannot give any other assurance of my good faith, except to reassert that I do not live a dual life, and that I have committed myself to following the principles of don Juan's system in my everyday existence" (1981:9).

And yet, this profession of faith lies in the Prologue to a work that, in fact, reveals the dual life that he led for more than a decade. This realization begins, first, in a conversation with all the warrior companions in which Castaneda recalls don Juan having placed his note-taking practice into question. Whereas Castaneda insists that his "self-image was that of a social scientist who needed to record everything" (1981: 26), don Juan and don Genaro insisted that actual note-taking engaged the "first attention" in remembering. Instead, they advised Castaneda toward "writing with the tip of my finger on pieces of paper, as the -not-doing- of taking notes, [which] would force my second attention to focus on remembering" (1981: 27). When he had attempted to do so, Castaneda recalls that he "became disturbed" to have lost his "most serviceable crutch," the accumulation of actual sheets of paper that gave him "a sense of purpose and balance" (1981: 27).

This discussion emerges as an all-important clue of things to come. During the following months, reported in volume 6, Castaneda and one sorceress, La Gorda, pursue experiments in "seeing" and then "dreaming," first individually, then repeated acts of "dreaming together." These allow them both to reach the next phase, of recollecting all the past events of their apprenticeship that had heretofore remained inaccessible to them. Along with Castaneda and La Gorda, the reader discovers that the entire narrative that preceded in volumes 1 to 4 was only a small portion of the tale. That is, throughout the 12 years of Castaneda's association with don Juan, his teacher had subtly, swiftly, and repeatedly shifted the apprentice's awareness physically into the alternate plane called the "second attention." Although forgotten by Castaneda in his normal waking state, and hence in the recorded notes, his experiences throughout the apprenticeship in the "second attention" constituted the real and indelible "lessons" of don Juan. In fact, it was to these experiences that don Juan referred in questioning the note-taking practice and in forcing Castaneda to exercise remembrance by reciting all that he recorded throughout the apprenticeship. Thus, the awareness of the "second attention" transforms the mind into a kind of magic writing pad onto which all lived experiences are inscribed for eventual perfect recall. Over a two-year period reported summarily in -The Eagle's Gift-, Castaneda and La Gorda gradually and painfully realize that their task henceforth, in order to achieve mastery of their latent powers, is for each of the apprentices to "remember" these experiences and thereby to integrate "two distinct forms of perception into a unified whole" (1981: 170), that is, into the active awareness of the waking state.

Thus, the final section in volume 6, entitled "The Eagle's Gift" as is the volume itself, prepares the systematic task undertaken in volumes 7, 8, and 9 of the "third cycle," the detailed "remembering" of the complete "teachings" of don Juan experienced by the apprentices in the "second attention." From the narrative perspective, Castaneda has skillfully developed a device for abandoning note-taking altogether: what he "reports" in each volume is precisely his "writing with the tip of the finger on pieces of paper," that is, systematic recollection of the teachings. Castaneda explains this in the Foreword to volume 7, -The Fire from Within-:

It has taken me nearly ten years to recollect what exactly took place in [don Juan's] teaching for the left side . . . [in which] they were not teaching me sorcery, but how to master three aspects of an ancient knowledge they possessed: awareness, -stalking-, and -intent-. And they were not sorcerers; they were seers. (1984: 10)

The difficulty of recalling the "teachings" experienced under heightened awareness is the achievement of the "second cycle" (volumes 5 & 6), while the new "cycle" provides the "three facets of the [seers'] knowledge: the mastery of awareness [in volume 7], the mastery of -stalking- and the mastery of -intent- [in volume 8]," and don Juan's "lessons in dreaming" (in volume 9). Henceforth, as Castaneda explains, "due to the fact that the experiences I narrate here took place in heightened awareness, they cannot have the texture of daily life. They are lacking in worldly context, although I have tried my best to supply it without fictionalizing" (1984: 12). Thus, as the reader progresses in this series, she discovers that the old guarantees of reliability necessarily no longer apply.

Castaneda continues to insist on this reliability, though -- the books are "a true account" of don Juan's teachings (1987: vii), he repeats in volume 8, and in introducing volume 9, Castaneda situates his enterprise fully within the field of anthropology.

As for -Magical Passes- as well as the video tapes, seminars, and Web site now available under the new teachings entitled "Tensegrity," Castaneda maintains his guarantee that "everything that I say about the magical passes is a direct result of [don Juan's] instruction" (1997: 2). Previously a closely guarded secret at don Juan's insistence, these "magical passes," or series of bodily movements that bestow on practitioners "tremendous results in terms of mental and physical prowess" (1997: 2), are henceforth available to anyone, in "a more generic form . . . suitable for everyone" (1997: 7-8). Castaneda's decision to end the secrecy surrounding the "magical passes" is based on yet another implicit claim to reliability, "naturally, the corollary of my conviction [argued by don Juan] that I am indeed the end of don Juan's lineage.It became inconceivable to me that I should carry secrets that were not even mine" (1997: 8).

At this point, consideration of the testimony and criticism available in the "metanarrative" texts would be useful, but I must conclude by returning to Deleuze's term "intercesseurs" (mediators). The evident question that hangs over this ten-volume series is whether or not these texts are indeed fiction. Castaneda's "fear of fiction" forces him to find different devices for framing the texts and for providing guarantees of reliability. Internal contradictions emerge, nonetheless, the most glaring being how Castaneda, as careful note-taker and chronologist throughout his anthropological research, could have possibly accounted for the gaps in his notes and experiences that apparently occurred regularly during the considerable time spent in the forgotten "second attention." However one wishes to explain or justify these contradictions, one fact is clear: these diverse texts continue to serve as "mediators" that establish productive "series," at once textual and experiential, for readers, writers and seekers of all sorts. One very recent reference is Michael Brennan's account, reprinted from -The Sun- in -The Utne Reader-. Dying from AIDS, Brennan recounts attending a "Tensegrity" seminar, meeting Castaneda, and most importantly, realizing through these encounters the possibility of "experienc[ing] ordinary life as full of beauty and wonder" (1998: 75). Like Castaneda the anthropologist, Brennan the journalist is "swallowed" by these "teachings," forcing him to conclude: "Does [don Juan, the mythic Yaqui seer] sit before me now, a trickster-teacher weaving deceptive tales of wisdom, folly, truth? I do not know, and cannot say" (1998: 75). What is certain is that Brennan like so many readers, and now "practitioners" of the "magical passes," connect to these (meta)narratives of Castaneda's "textual-becomings" and thereby draw new resources and even inspiration from the "tales of power."

Selected Bibliography

I. Texts and Tapes by Castaneda (all published in New York: Simon and Schuster, unless otherwise noted)

First Cycle:

1. (1968; 1974) -The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge-. Berkeley: U of California P; New York: Pocket Books. Rpt. with new commentary by the author, New York: Washington Square P, 1998. Castaneda's initial period of apprenticeship with don Juan Matus, focusing on effects of psychotropic plants.

2. (1971) -A Separate Reality: Further Conversations with Don Juan-. Castaneda's second period of apprenticeship (April 1968 until October 17, 1970). Castaneda reaches an "impasse" in his learning because, according to don Juan, "of [his] insistence on understanding" (1971: 262).

3. (1972) -Journey to Ixtlan: The Lessons of Don Juan-. Revising his fundamental assumptions regarding the role played by pscyhotropic plants in don Juan's teaching, Castaneda reinstates previously discarded notes (1960-62, chs.1-17). In the three final chapters, occurring over two days in May 1971, Don Juan again enlists the help of a fellow sorcerer, don Genaro, to facilitate Castaneda's task of "stopping the world."

4. (1974) -Tales of Power-. Completing the "first cycle," volume 4 extends the temporal frame of Castaneda's apprenticeship into 1973. This volume depicts the completion of Castaneda's direct interactions with don Juan and don Genaro who "pass over" to the "other side"; Castaneda faces a final challenge to his rational belief system and succeeds in reconciling the "first [daily] attention" with a potentially life-threatening experience in the "second attention."

Second Cycle:

5. (1977) -The Second Ring of Power-. Castaneda returns to Mexico to seek explanations of the final encounter in volume 4 from two other apprentices, Pablito and Nestor. First, however, he must face combat with the women apprentices, and succeeding in these encounters, Castaneda is recognized as the new leader of the band of sorcerers (four men, four women). Still, Castaneda is "incomplete" in his formation as a sorcerer and is unable to offer the guidance needed. He retreats to Los Angeles.

6. (1981) -The Eagle's Gift-. Continuing the interactions with the band of sorcerers, Castaneda joins with one woman, La Gorda, in experimenting with the "second attention" through "seeing," "dreaming," and "dreaming together." Their experience over two years helps them both realize the forgotten "teaching" of don Juan that occurred in the "second attention" throughout the earlier apprenticeship. Chapters 9-15 provide the first installment of their "remembering", with details on don Juan's own band of fellow sorcerers.

Third Cycle:

7. (1984) -The Fire from Within-. In the third cycle, Castaneda provides the results of his "remembering," detailed recall of all the "teachings" of don Juan in the "left side" or "second attention." In this volume, Castaneda considers one of the three facets of don Juan's and his fellow seers' "knowledge," the "mastery of awareness."

8. (1987) -The Power of Silence: Further Lessons of Don Juan-. Continuing "remembering" the "left side," Castaneda here presents first set "of three abstract cores" that relate to the "mastery of intent."

9. (1993) -The Art of Dreaming-. New York: HarperCollins. Continuing with "remembering," Castaneda breaks precedent in now revealing the second group of apprentices gathered by don Juan once he realized that Castaneda's "energy configuration" was incompatible with his leading the original group of eight apprentices. This second group had only three members: Florinda Donner-Grau ("a dreamer"), Taisha Abelar ("a stalker"), and Carol Tiggs ("a nagual woman", 1993: ix-x). Castaneda here presents "most of the pieces of don Juan's lessons in the art of dreaming," as prepatory for explaining in a future work "the results of don Juan's guidance and influence on us" (1993: xi).

Fourth Cycle:

(1995) -Carlos Castaneda's Tensegrity-. Video cassette 1: -Twelve Basic Movements to Gather Energy and Promote Well-Being-. Laugan Productions.

(1995) -Carlos Castaneda's Tensegrity-. Video cassette 2: Redistributing Dispersed Energy-. Laugan Productions.

(1996) -Carlos Castaneda's Tensegrity-. Video cassette 3: Energetically Crossing from One Phylum to Another.- Laugan Productions. This set of tapes provides lessons in the series of movements to develop one's "redeployment of inherent energy," i.e. "transporting, from one place to another, energy which already exists within us . . . [in order to bring forth a balance between mental alterness and physical prowess" (1997: 4).

(1996) -The Warriors' Way: A Journal of Applied Hermeneutics- 1.1 & 2 (January, February); -Carlos Castaneda's Readers of Infinity: A Journal of Applied Hermeneutics- 1.3 & 4 (March, April): The Castaneda group's apparently short-lived periodical "to take the position delineated by don Juan Matus . . . and to emphasize the sorcerers' idea of practicality as opposed to the purely abstract reflection of a philosophical method" (1.1: 2). In issue 4, Castaneda states that despite his desire to "give this journal a character as distant as possible from temporariness," Castaneda intends to publish "this journal in book form," presumably in -Magical Passes-, but perhaps in another publication.

10. (1998) -Magical Passes: The Practical Wisdom of the Shamans of Ancient Mexico-. New York: HarperCollins. Cleargreen Inc.: : Website for teachings on Tensegrity, interviews, seminars, and products (see below).

II. Texts by Sorcerers and Disciples

Abelar, Taisha (1992) -The Sorcerers' Crossing: A Woman's Journey. Foreword by Carlos Castaneda. New York: Penguin.

Castaneda, Margaret Runyon (1997) -A Magical Journey with Carlos Castaneda-. Victoria, B.C.: Millenia Press.

Donner, Florinda (1991) -Being-in-Dreaming: An Initiation into the Sorcerers' World-. New York: HarperSanFrancisco.

Eagle Feather, Ken (1995) -A Toltec Path-. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Co.

Eagle Feather, Ken (1992, 1996) -Traveling with Power: The Exploration and Development of Perception-. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Co.

Sanchez, Victor (1995) -The Teachings of Don Carlos" Practical Applications of the Works of Carlos Castaneda-. Santa Fe, NM: Bear & Co. Publishing.

Tomas (1995) -The Promise of Power: Reflections on the Toltec Warriors' Dialogue from the Collected Works of Carlos Castaneda-. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Co.

III. Texts by Critics (selected)

de Mille, Richard (1976; 1978) -Castaneda's Journey: The Power and the Allegory-. Santa Barbara: Capra Press. de Mille, Richard (1990) -The Don Juan Papers: Further Castaneda Controversies-. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

Fikes, Jay Courtney (1993) -Carlos Castaneda, Academic Opportunism, and the Psychedelic Sixties-. Victoria, B.C.: Millenia Press.

IV. Diverse

Brennan, Michael (1998) "The World of Waking Dreams." -The Utne Reader- (January-February): 70-75; excerpt rpt. from -The Sun- (September 1997).

Plotkin, Edward (1998) -The Four Yogas of Enlightenment-. An electronic book linking don Juan's teachings to esoteric Buddhism:

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